Ellaville, the county seat for Schley County, incorporated on November 23, 1859. The city remembers Ella Burton, the daughter of the man who sold the land for the town site.
The county courthouse, built in 1899, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The clock tower, once known as the "Leaning Tower of Ellaville", was straightened and reinforced in 1991.
Ellaville's water system is one of only two in the state that use duckweed as a natural water filter.