Winterville's history dates back to the 1700s when land grants brought settlers here. The first railroad in Georgia also brought a cluster of housing to the area, near Six-Mile Station.
Residents attribute the town's name to a family of three brothers, of the last name Winter, who came to the area from Germany thanks to the railroad.
Incorporated in 1904, Winterville saw its peak of economic activity in the 1920s. Industry thrived in the area in the form of five general stores, a drug store, a bank, two garages, two cotton gins and two grist mills. As the 20th century drew on, however, community spirit in the area waned.
In 1970, a few residents wanted to boast Winterville morale. They proposed holding an annual Marigold Festival, an event that raised funds to improve the community and ran for more than 30 years.