Woodbury is one of the oldest towns in Meriwether County. It grew up about 10 miles southeast of Greenville in the late 1820s. For many years residents called the town "Sandtown" for the area's white sand. When the post office opened in 1845, though, the office changed the name.
In 1887, Woodbury hit a growth spurt when the railroad laid its tracks and made its mark. Shortly thereafter, Woodbury saw tremendous growth with schools, churches, and businesses serving the many new residents.