Jefferson County, created in 1796 from parts of Burke and Warren counties, honors President Thomas Jefferson. In tribute to Revolutionary War ally King Louis XVI of France, Jefferson's founders named the county seat Louisville. Succeeding Savannah and Augusta, Louisville housed the state capital from 1796 until 1806.
An early settler of this region, George Galphin, maintained a trading post from the 1750s and cultivated great influence among the Creek Indians. It was at his trading post that the Creeks made a treaty and ceded to Georgia all the land between the Altamaha and St. Mary's rivers.